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NIGERI└N DOCUMENTRIES

  1. HISTORY OF MILITRY RULE IN NIGERIA

    First Junta (1966?1979) The first one began on January 15, 1966, when Major Chukwuma Nzeogwu and a group of Majors overthrew current Prime Minister Alhaji Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa in a coup d'Útat (known as the coup of the five Majors). Major General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi was made the Head of the Federal Military Government of Nigeria. Aguiyi-Ironsi was then overthrown and murdered in a coup in July of the same year and succeeded by General Yakubu Gowon, who held power until 1975, when he was overthrown in a bloodless coup by a group of soldiers that wanted to return civilian rule to Nigeria. Brigadier (later General) Murtala Mohammed, who succeeded General Gowon, was not directly involved in this coup, but did help round up soldiers for the coup. A year later, in 1976, Mohammed was assassinated in a violent coup, and Olusẹgun Ọbasanjọ then succeeded Mohammed. Three years later, in 1979, Ọbasanjọ handed power to the elected Shehu Shagari, which ended the military regime and installed a Nigerian Second Republic. Second Junta (1983?1998) Shagari, however, was overthrown in a bloodless coup in 1983 and succeeded by Muhammadu Buhari, who was appointed Chairman of the Supreme Military Council of Nigeria and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces by the junta. Buhari ruled for two years, until 1985, when he was overthrown by General Ibrahim Babangida, who appointed himself with the position of President of the Armed Forces Ruling Council of Nigeria. Babangida promised a return of democracy when he seized power, but this barely took place during the Babangida regime. He ruled Nigeria until 1993, when he temporarily handed power to the interim head of state Ernest Shonekan, being part of his promise to return democracy. Two months later, however, Shonekan was overthrown by General Sani Abacha, with former President Babangida conveniently involved with a visit to Egypt. Abacha appointed himself Chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council of Nigeria. After Abacha's death in 1998, General Abdulsalami Abubakar took over and ruled until 1999 when Olusẹgun Ọbasanjọ again became head of state (via an election) and ended the junta. Olusegun Obasanjo ruled until 2007, then passed it down to another democratically elected president, Umaru Musa Yar'adua, who ruled Nigeria until his death in 2010.
  2. NIGERIAN FIRST REPUBLIC

    The First Republic was the republican government of Nigeria between 1963 and 1966 governed by the first republican constitution. Founding (1963) Edit Although Nigeria gained partial independence from Britain on October 1, 1960, it was not totally independent until 1963 when the Declaration of Independence was signed. The name ?Nigeria? is derived from the word ?Niger? ? the name of the river that constitutes the most remarkable geographical feature of the country. Nigeria is a country of 923,768 square kilometers, bound to the west by Benin, to the north by the Niger and Chad Republic, east by the Republic of Cameroon, and south by the Gulf of Guinea. The country gained independence from the British government on Oct. first 1960, and became a republic in 1963. The journey to independence started with some constitutional developments in Nigeria, these constitutional developments saw the country attaining self-rule in some quarters in 1957 and total liberation on Oct. 1st 1960. Presidents Edit Presidents during the Nigerian First Republic President Term Party Nnamdi Azikiwe October 1, 1963 - January 16, 1966 NCNC Prime ministers Edit Prime Ministers during the Nigerian First Republic Prime Minister Term Party Abubakar Tafawa Balewa October 1, 1963 - January 16, 1966 NPC Political parties Edit Action Group (AG) Borno Youth Movement (BYM) Democratic Party of Nigeria and Cameroon (DPNC) Dynamic Party (DP) Igala Union (IU) Igbira Tribal Union (ITU) Midwest Democratic Front (MDF) National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons/National Council of Nigerian Citizens (NCNC) National Independence Party (NIP) Niger Delta Congress (NDC) Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDP) Northern Elements Progressive Union (NEPU) Northern People's Congress (NPC) Northern Progressive Front (NPF) Republican Party (RP) United Middle Belt Congress (UMBC) United National Independence Party (UNIP) Zamfara Commoners Party (ZCP) Politics Edit The country was split into three geopolitical regions?Western Region, Eastern Region and Northern Region?and its political parties took on the identities and ideologies of each region. The Northern People's Party (NPC) represented the interests of the predominantly Hausa/Fulani Northern Region], the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC)] (later renamed to "National Council of Nigerian Citizens") represented the predominantly Igbo Eastern Region, and the Action Group (AG) dominated the Yoruba Western Region. The NPC took control of the federal parliament, and formed a coalition government with the NCNC. The National Independence Party (NIP) formed by Professor Eyo Ita became the second political party in the old Eastern Region. Ahmadu Bello, the Sardauna of Sokoto, leader of the NPC, was poised to become the Prime Minister, but instead he chose to become the Premier of the Northern Region, and supported his deputy Tafawa Balewa's candidacy for Prime Minister. This raised suspicions amongst the southern politicians, who resented the idea of a federal government controlled by a regional leader through his designated proxy. In the end, Tafawa Balewa of NPC was named Prime Minister and Head of Government, and Nnamdi Azikiwe of NCNC was named President. At Nigeria's independence, the Northern Region gained more seats in parliament than both Eastern and Western regions combined?this would cement Northern dominance in Nigerian politics for years to come. Resentment amongst southern politicians precipitated into political chaos in the country. Obafemi Awolowo, Premier of Western Region, was accused of attempting to overthrow the government. This followed a period of conflict between the AG regional government and the central government. In spite of the flimsiness of the evidence presented by the government's prosecutors, he was convicted. With incarceration of Awolowo, Samuel Akintola took over as the Premier of Western Region. Because Akintola was an ally of Ahmadu Bello, the undisputed strong man of Nigeria, Akintola was criticized as being a tool of the North.[1] As premier of the West, Akintola presided over the most chaotic era The coup Edit Main article: 1966 Nigerian coup d'Útat The political unrest during the mid-1960s culminated into Nigeria's first military coup d'Útat. On 15 January 1966, Major Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu and his fellow rebel soldiers (most of who were of southern extraction) and were led by Major Emmanuel Ifeajuna of the Nigerian Army, executed a bloody takeover of all institutions of government. Prime Minister Tafawa Balewa, was assassinated along with the premier of Northern Nigeria, strong-man Ahmadu Bello the Sardauna of Sokoto,[5] Samuel Akintola, premier of the West[6] and Festus Okotie-Eboh, the Finance Minister. [1]. It is not clear whether President Azikiwe's life was spared because he was out of the country at the time, or whether he had been informed about the impending coup and was out of the country so that his life could be spared. Major-General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi took control as the first Head of the Federal Military Government of Nigeria on January 16, 1966.[7] Civil war and beyond: 1966-1979 Edit The republic would be torn by the secession of Biafra and the ensuing civil war from 1966-1970. After Biafra was overrun and the nation re-unified, military rule continued for another nine years, implementing Nigerianization of foreign businesses. Eventually, elections were held in 1979 leading the way to the Nigerian Second Republic.
  3. THE NIGERIAN SECOND REPUBLIC

    Second Nigerian Republic (Redirected from Nigerian Second Republic) The Second Republic was the republican government of Nigeria between 1979 and 1983 governed by the second republican constitution. Founding (1979) Edit Following the assassination of Nigerian military Head of State, General Murtala Mohammed in 1976, his successor General Olusegun Obasanjo initiated the transition process to terminate military rule in 1979. A new constitution was drafted, which saw the Westminster system of government (previously used in the First Republic) jettisoned for an American-style Presidential system. The 1979 constitution mandated that political parties and cabinet positions reflect the "federal character" of the nation ? Political parties were required to be registered in at least two-thirds of the states, and each state was required to produce at least one cabinet member. A constituent assembly was elected in 1977 to draft a new constitution, which was published on September 21, 1978, when the ban on political activity was lifted. In 1979, five political parties competed in a series of elections in which Alhaji Shehu Shagari of the National Party of Nigeria (NPN) was elected president. Obasanjo peacefully transferred power to Shagari, becoming the first head of state in Nigerian history to willingly step down. All five parties won representation in the National Assembly. In August 1983 Shagari and the NPN were returned to power in a landslide victory, with a majority of seats in the National Assembly and control of 12 state governments. But the elections were marred by violence and allegations of widespread vote rigging and electoral malfeasance led to legal battles over the results.[1] In the widely monitored 1979 election, Alhaji Shehu Shagari was elected on the NPN platform. On October 1, 1979, Shehu Shagari was sworn in as the first President and Commander-in-Chief of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Presidents Edit Presidents during the Nigerian Second Republic President Term Party Shehu Shagari October 1, 1979 - December 31, 1983 NPN Political parties Edit Greater Nigerian People's Party (GNPP) National Party of Nigeria (NPN) Nigeria Advance Party (NAP) Nigerian People's Party (NPP) People's Redemption Party (PRP) Unity Party of Nigeria (UPN) Political activism Edit Tai Solarin, an educationist, mounted public podiums regularly, to speak-out in defiance of what he strongly felt were the negative views of the Second Republic government. Another such activist was Ayodele Awojobi, a professor of Mechanical Engineering, who filed several lawsuits and organised political rallies in protest of the Nigerian election results that returned Shehu Shagari, the incumbent, as President in the Second Republic - he strongly believed the results were widely rigged. Overthrow Edit On December 31, 1983, the military overthrew the Second Republic. Major General Muhammadu Buhari, became the Military leader of the new government, cited charges of corruption and administrative incompetence as reasons for military intervention. He emerged as the leader of the Supreme Military Council (SMC), the country's new ruling body. President Shagari was placed under house arrest, and several of his cabinet members were either jailed or exiled. The Buhari government was peacefully overthrown by the SMC's third-ranking member General Ibrahim Babangida in August 1985. Babangida cited the misuse of power, violations of human rights by key officers of the SMC, and the government's failure to deal with the country's deepening economic crisis as justifications for the takeover. During his first days in office President Babangida moved to restore freedom of the press and to release political detainees being held without charge. As part of a 15-month economic emergency plan he announced pay cuts for the military, police, civil servants and the private sector. President Babangida demonstrated his intent to encourage public participation in decisionmaking by opening a national debate on proposed economic reform and recovery measures. The public response convinced Babangida of intense opposition to an economic recovery package dependent on an International Mon
  4. THE THIRD REPUBLIC

    Third Nigerian Republic Page issues (Redirected from Nigerian Third Republic) The Third Republic was the planned republican government of Nigeria in 1993 which was to be governed by the Third Republican constitution. Founding (1993) Edit The constitution of the Third Republic was drafted in 1989, when General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida (IBB), the military Head of State, promised to terminate military rule by 1990 ? a date which was subsequently pushed back to 1993. IBB lifted the ban on political activity in the spring of 1989, and his government established two political parties: the center-right National Republican Convention (NRC) and the center-left Social Democratic Party (SDP). Gubernatorial and state legislative elections were conducted in December 1991, while the presidential election was postponed till 12 June 1993 ? due to political unrest. MKO Abiola, a wealthy Yoruba businessman, won a decisive victory in the presidential elections on the SDP platform. Presidents-elect Edit Presidents-Elect during the Nigerian Third Republic President-Elect Elected Party MKO Abiola June 12, 1993 SDP Political parties Edit National Republican Convention (NRC) Social Democratic Party (SDP) Annulment Edit On 23 June 1993, IBB had the election annulled, and this threw the country into chaos. IBB eventually bowed to pressures from his inner circle and resigned from office on 23 August 1993. Ernest Shonekan, a Yoruba business man, and the head of IBB?s transition team, assumed the office of the presidency as the Head of the Interim National Government. Shonekan was unable to manage the political turmoil which ensued in the post IBB months. His caretaker government was quietly removed from office, by the Minister of Defence, General Sani Abacha on 17 November 1993. On 11 June 1994, president-elect Moshood Kashimawo Olawale Abiola, declared himself president and went into hiding. The Abacha administration hunted Abiola down and arrested him for treason. Abiola remained in prison until his death in 1998.
  5. THE FORTH REPUBLIC

    Fourth Nigerian Republic (Redirected from Nigerian Fourth Republic) The Fourth Republic is the republican government of Nigeria. Since 1999 it has governed the country according to the fourth republican constitution. It was in many ways a revival of the Second Republic, which was in place between 1979 and 1983 and suffers many of the same problems, such as multiple ministries which made policy planning difficult. Nigeria adopted the constitution of the Fourth Republic on May 29, 1999. Founding (1999) Edit Following the death of military dictator and de facto ruler of Nigeria, General Sani Abacha in 1998, his successor General Abdusalami Abubakar initiated the transition which heralded Nigeria's return to democratic rule in 1999. The ban on political activities was lifted, and political prisoners were released from detention facilities. The constitution was styled after the ill fated Second Republic ? which saw the Westminster system of government jettisoned for an American Presidential system. Political parties were formed (People's Democratic Party (PDP), All Nigeria Peoples Party (ANPP), and Alliance for Democracy (AD)), and elections were set for April 1999. In the widely monitored 1999 election, former military ruler Olusegun Obasanjo was elected on the PDP platform. On 29 May 1999, Obasanjo was sworn in as President and Commander-in-Chief of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. In the controversial general election on 21 April 2007, Umaru Yar'Adua of the PDP was elected President. Following the death of Umaru Yar'Adua on 5 May 2010, Goodluck Jonathan became the third president(Interim) and later won the election the following year which was largely accredited as freer and fairer than all the previous elections of the 4th Republic. Presidents Edit Presidents during the Nigerian Fourth Republic President Term Party Olusegun Obasanjo 29 May 1999 ? 29 May 2007 PDP Umaru Yar'Adua 29 May 2007 ? 5 May 2010 PDP Goodluck Jonathan 6 May 2010 ? 27 March 2015 PDP Muhammadu Buhari 28 March 2015 - APC Political parties Edit All Progressives Congress (APC) Alliance for Democracy (AD) All Nigeria Peoples Party (ANPP) All People's Party (APP) All Progressives Grand Alliance Democratic People's Alliance (DPA) National Democratic Party (NDP) New Democrats (ND) People's Democratic Party (PDP) Progressive Peoples Alliance (PPA) People's Redemption Party (PRP) People's Salvation Party (PSP) United Nigeria People's Party (UNPP) Fresh Democratic Party (FDP) National Conscience Party (NCP) Justice Party (JP) Masses Movement of Nigeria (MMN) Labour Party (LP) Kowa party Social Democratic Party (SDP) Constitutional amendments Edit Third Term Agenda
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